Targets are a Class of Requirements that we seriously plan to reach. They contrast to Constraints that we seek to avoid; and Benchmark Levels which are merely analytical information, without formal commitment to reach them.

Alternative Names

Concept Number: *048
English Master: Target
Synonyms, Variations & Acronyms: none




Illustration: none


Requirement Level Specification-Type


target 1.png
Figure [*048] Scalar-Targets can be specified for both performance and Resource-Requirements.


1. NOT Constraint. A target is not a Constraint. Targets specify the success Levels for Scalar Requirements, and any Stakeholder-desired Binary Requirements.
Constraints by contrast specify any failure and/or survival Levels for Scalar Requirements, and any mandatory Requirements for Binary Requirements.

2. FUNCTION-TARGETS. Function-Targets, or “valued functions”, are subtly different from Function-Constraints. Function-Constraints are mandatory. If a Function-Constraint is not met then some degree of failure will occur, or even total System Catastrophe. Function-Targets do not have implied penalties – but can have specified ones (“Rationale” and other attached specs): nevertheless, they are considered required by some Stakeholder.
3. Content. A Scalar-Target specification Consists-of a numeric value (its target Level) and its relevant [qualifiers] and a Priority-Level classification of Goal, Budget, or Stretch.
Wish, Ideal, and Perfect Scalar Levels are initial reference points, and are classified as Benchmarks. They are not targets, unless the Levels they refer to are also formally acknowledged as such, by being specified as Goal, Stretch, or Budget.
4.COLLECTIVE USE. Target can also be used as a collective noun, applied to a set of Function-Targets and variable Scalar-Targets with their individual qualified Levels.
5. Aim NOT AVOID. A target is distinguished from Constraints in that we are aiming to reach, at least to, the target Levels, or to deliver the Function-Target; while Scalar-Constraints are Requirements Levels we want to avoid. Function-Targets are Functions we want to deliver, while “Function-Constraints” are Functions we want to avoid.

6. Priority: Target Level Requirement-Specifications can be expressed by the Parameters Goal/Budget and Stretch. Each one of these indicates a different Level of commitment and Priority. Benchmark Levels (Past, Record, Trend, Ideal, Perfect) can be thought of as indicating a weaker Level of Stakeholder interest or value, if any. Constraint Levels (Fail, Tolerable) are a stronger Level of Priority than Target Levels.

7. SPECIFICATION ACTIVATION. Target specifications can become committed Requirements (become “prioritized”, or “activated”),
• when their qualified Conditions are true, (especially in the Case of Goal) and
• when it is economically and technically possible (in the Case of Stretch)
• when other higher Priority targets are fulfilled, and there is still Resource-Available to meet them (this applies to Stretch and Wish, as well as lower Priority Goal Requirements).

8. There are two kinds of target: “Scalar” and “binary”.
9. Scalar-Targets can be expressed using the Parameters {Goal, Budget, Stretch}.
10. Binary targets are Function-Targets.





Goal *439: a Performance-Target • Budget *421: a Resource-Target
Benchmark *007 updated Jan 23 08
Constraint *218
Function-Target *420
Function-Constraint *469
Scalar-Target *470
• Stretch *404
Wish *244
Requirement *026



This Concept entered by Lisa.

Created by system. Last Modification: Thursday 11 of July, 2019 20:59:03 CEST by Admin (Kai).

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