Concept Number: *276
English Master: Issue
Synonyms, Variations & Acronyms: none
ISS1: Issue: We have not analyzed risks and dependencies yet.
“An important distinction is that between “risks” and “Issues”. Issues can be defined as
“previously unidentified risks/problems that are perceived to have occurred or are certainly
going to occur, the probability of occurrence being 100%. Unlike risks, which may or may not
come into play, Issues will occur. It is more important to construct Complete contingency plans
for Issues, therefore, since, with an Issue, it is certain that an adverse Impact on the programme
will occur if no Action is taken.”
<- Clive Fenton, [ELLIOT02, Chapter 2, Section 5]
1. A Specification-Issue is an element of written specification, which we suspect violates a Specification-Rule.
It is noted for later Resolution. It will be resolved by being declared to be either a Defect (a Rule violation) or
as requiring no further Action.
2. In their 1970 paper Issues as Elements of Information Systems, Kunz and Rittel introduced Issue-Based Information Systems (IBIS)
as a collaborative problem identification and solving tool. The Concept is based on Processes of argument.
The System is particularly useful when at the outset a problem is either poorly defined, and/or preConceptions
of the nature of the problem lead to participants in the discussion taking adversarial roles.
To avoid the polarization that is common in debates, IBIS follows a Procedure involving a decomposition of the problem.
The key to the System is the Idea of an Issue, which is in effect a question. As the Procedure takes place, particular kinds of
knowledge artifacts are generated and recorded.Although finding a good Solution to any given problem is by no Means guaranteed,
the Process can reveal answers on which a consensus can be reached, or discover aspects of the problem to which other reasoning
techniques may be applied. <- IBIS Vocabulary, http://ideagraph.net/xm
This Concept entered by Soheir Ghallab.