A System has a Malfunction when it does something not intended, or not desired, according to its design/construction specification, or according to reasonable Stakeholder expectations (even though there may be no official specification about that expectation). Malfunctions are undesired outputs (including no outputs) from a “real” System.
Error/Slip -> (Specification-Issue) -> Specification-Defect -> Fault/Bug/System Defect -> Malfunction
This Concept entered by Diane O'Brien.
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